Bibliography

Bibliography for Roman Roads and Milestones in Judaea/Palaestina

(including roads from Ptolemais and Paneas)

For more data see articles in Hebrew in the Hebrew version

General

Avi-Yonah M. 1950-1951. 'The Development of the Roman Road system in Palestine', Israel Exploration Journal 1: 54-60.

Graf D., Isaac B. and Roll I. 1992 'Roads and Highways: Roman Roads", in: The Anchor Bible Dictionary Vol. 5 : 782-787.

Isaac B. 1988. 'Milestones in Judaea: From Vespasian to Constantine', The Near East Under Roman Rule – Selected Papers, Leiden: 48-75.

Levinson J. 2016. 'The Language of Stones: Roman Milestones on Rabbinic Roads', Journal For The Study Of Judaism 47: 1-20. 

Roll I. 1983. 'The Roman Road System in Judea', Jerusalem Cathedra 3: 136-161.

Roll I. 1996. 'Roman Roads', in: Y. Tsafrir, L. Di Segni and J. Green (eds.) Tabula Imperii Romani – Iudaea Palaestina Jerusalem: 21-22 and maps with Roman roads and milestone stations.

Roll I. 1999. 'The Roads in Roman-Byzantine Palestine and Arabia', in: M. Piccrillo and E. Alliata (eds.) The Madaba Map Centenary 1897-1997, Jerusalem: 109-113.

Thomsen P. 1917. 'Die romischen Meilensteine der Provinzen Syria, Arabia, und Palastina'. Zeitchrift des Deutschen Palastina-Vereins 40: 1-103.

Weingarten S. 2002. ‘Road use in Late Antique Palestine’ in P. Freeman, J. Bennett, Z.T. Fiema & B. Hoffman (eds) Limes XVIII. Proceedings of the XVIIIth International Congress of International Roman Frontiers Studies held in Amman, Jordan, (September 2000); British Archaeological Reports 1084 Oxford: 243-258 

Tabula Peutingeriana

Finkelstein I. 1979. 'The Holy Land in the Tabula Peutingeriana: A Historical-Geographical Approach', Palestine Exploration Quarterly 111: 27-34, pls II-III.

Talbert R.J.A. 2010. Rome's World: The Peutinger Map Reconsidered, Cambridge.

Tappy R.E. 2012. 'The Tabula Peutingeriana, Its Roadmap to Borderland Settlements in Iudaea-Palestina, With Special reference to Tel Zayit in the Late Roman period',

Near Eastern Archaeology 75/1: 36-55.

E. Weber 1999. 'The Tabula Peutingeriana and the Madaba Map;, in: M. Piccrillo and E. Alliata (eds.) The Madaba Map Centenary 1897-1997, Jerusalem: 41-46.

According to roads (from north to south)

Tyrus - Ptolemais

Alt, A. 1928. Die Meilenzählung an der römischen Srasse Anthiochia-Ptolemais. Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins 51: 253–264.

Avi-Yonah M. 1946. Newly Discovered Latin and Greek Inscriptions. QDAP. 12: 85-86.

Goodchild, R. G. 1949. 'The Coast Road of Phoenicia and its Roman Milestones,' Berytus 9: 91-127.

Lerer Y. 2016 'Nahariyya' Hadashot Arkheologiyot Excavations and Surveys in Israel 128
http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=24992&mag_id=124

Lerer Y. 2015 'Shave Zion', Hadashot Arkheologiyot Excavations and Surveys in Israel 127
http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/report_detail_eng.aspx?id=22789&mag_id=122

Phythian-Adamas W. J. 1924 "A Roman milestone from Ez-Zib" PEQ 57: 94-95.

Tyrus - Paneas

Cagnat R 1936.. 'Un nouveau milliarie de Syrie', Syria 17 99-100.

Hartal M. 2009. Paneas IV – The Aqueduct and the Northern Suburbs IAA Report no. 40 Jerusalem: 21.

Roll I. 2002. 'Crossing the Rift Valley: the connecting arteries between the road networks of Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia', in: P. Freeman, J. Bennett, Z. T. Fiema and B. Hoffmann (eds.) Limes XVIII – Proceedings of the XVIIIth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies held in Amman, Jordan (September 2000) British Archaeological Reports International Series 1084,Oxford: 216.

Paneas – Damascus

Hartal M. 2009. Paneas IV – The Aqueduct and the Northern Suburbs IAA Report no. 40 Jerusalem: 20-21.

Urman D. 1985. The Golan- A profile of a region during the Roman and Byzantine periods BAR IS 269: 109-110, 133 n. 54.

Paneas – Julias

Hartal M. 2009. Paneas IV – The Aqueduct and the Northern Suburbs IAA Report no. 40 Jerusalem: 21.

Roll I. 'Between Damascus and Megido: Roads and Transportation in Antiquity Across the Northeastern Approaches to the Holy Land' in: L. Di Segni, Y. Hirschfeld, J. Patrich and R. Talgam (eds.) Man Near A Roman Arch – Studies presented to Prof. Yoram Tzafrir, Jerusalem 2009: 14*

Ptolemais Caesarea

Roll I. 1996. Roman Roads to Caesarea Maritima in: A. Raban and K.G. Holum (eds.) Caesarea Maritima – A Retrospective after two Millenia. Leiden: 552-554.

Ptolemais – Diocaesarea

Roll I. 1994. Survey of Roman Roads in Lower Galilee. ESI 14: 39-40.

Roll I. 'Between Damascus and Megido: Roads and Transportation in Antiquity Across the Northeastern Approaches to the Holy Land' in: L. Di Segni, Y. Hirschfeld, J. Patrich and R. Talgam (eds.) Man Near A Roman Arch – Studies presented to Prof. Yoram Tzafrir, Jerusalem 2009: 13*

Tiberias – Diocaesarea

Leibner U. 2009 Settlement and History in Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Galilee, Tubingen: 17.

Roll I. 1994. Survey of Roman Roads in Lower Galilee. ESI 14: 39-39.

Roll I. 'Between Damascus and Megido: Roads and Transportation in Antiquity Across the Northeastern Approaches to the Holy Land' in: L. Di Segni, Y. Hirschfeld, J. Patrich and R. Talgam (eds.) Man Near A Roman Arch – Studies presented to Prof. Yoram Tzafrir, Jerusalem 2009: 13*

Tiberias - Julias

Corbo V. and Loffreda S. 1976. Sarcofago e pietra miliare di Cafarno, Liber Annus 26: 272-276.

Leibner U. 2009 Settlement and History in Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine Galilee, Tubingen: 17.

Diocaesarea – Legio

Roll I. 'Between Damascus and Megido: Roads and Transportation in Antiquity Across the Northeastern Approaches to the Holy Land' in: L. Di Segni, Y. Hirschfeld, J. Patrich and R. Talgam (eds.) Man Near A Roman Arch – Studies presented to Prof. Yoram Tzafrir, Jerusalem 2009: 12*-13*

Eastern side of Sea of Galilee

Roll I. 'Between Damascus and Megido: Roads and Transportation in Antiquity Across the Northeastern Approaches to the Holy Land' in: L. Di Segni, Y. Hirschfeld, J. Patrich and R. Talgam (eds.) Man Near A Roman Arch – Studies presented to Prof. Yoram Tzafrir, Jerusalem 2009: 14*

Urman D. 1985. The Golan- A profile of a region during the Roman and Byzantine periods BAR IS 289: 112, figs. 46-47.

Legio - Scythopolis

Isaac B. and Roll I. 1982. Roman Roads in Judea, I. The Legio=Scythopolis Road (BAR IS 141) Oxford.

Scythopolis – Neapolis

Avi-Yonah M. 1966. 'A New Dating of the Roman Road from Scythopolis to Neapolis', IEJ 16 :75-76.

Neapolis - Joppa

Roll I. and Ayalon E. 1986. Roman Roads in Western Samaria. PEQ 118: 115-116

Neapolis - Diospolis

Roll I. and Ayalon E. 1986. Roman Roads in Western Samaria. PEQ 118: 117-121

Neapolis – Philadelphia

Roll I. 2002. 'Crossing the Rift Valley: the connecting arteries between the road networks of Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia', in: P. Freeman, J. Bennett, Z. T. Fiema and B. Hoffmann (eds.) Limes XVIII – Proceedings of the XVIIIth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies held in Amman, Jordan (September 2000) British Archaeological Reports International Series 1084,Oxford: 217.

Caesarea - Legio

Eliran O. 'Nahal 'Ada (North)'  , Hadashot Arkheologiyot Excavations and Surveys in Israel 128
http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/Report_Detail_Eng.aspx?id=25058&mag_id=124

Roll I. 1996. Roman Roads to Caesarea Maritima in: A. Raban and K.G. Holum (eds.) Caesarea Maritima – A Retrospective after two Millenia. Leiden: 555-557.

Caesarea - Ginae

Zertal A. 1990. The Roman Road Caesarea-Ginae and the Location of Capercotani. PEQ 122: 21-33.

Caesarea - Neapolis

Roll I. 1996. Roman Roads to Caesarea Maritima in: A. Raban and K.G. Holum (eds.) Caesarea Maritima – A Retrospective after two Millenia. Leiden: 557-558.

Caesarea - Antipatris

Dar S. and Applebaum S. 1973. The Roman Road from Antipatris to Caesarea. PEQ 105: 91-99.

Roll I. 2000. Roman Milestones in the Vicinity of Aphek-Antipatris in: M. Kochavi (ed) Aphek-Antipatris I Tel Aviv: 39-41.Roll I. 1996. Roman Roads to Caesarea Maritima in: A. Raban and K.G. Holum (eds.) Caesarea Maritima – A Retrospective after two Millenia. Leiden: 557-558.

Caesarea - Joppa

Roll I. 1996. Roman Roads to Caesarea Maritima in: A. Raban and K.G. Holum (eds.) Caesarea Maritima – A Retrospective after two Millenia. Leiden: 558.

Gophna – Timna - Antipatris

Roll I. and Ayalon E. 1986. Roman Roads in Western Samaria. PEQ 118: 121-125.

Jerusalem

Reich R. and Billig Y. 2003. 'Another Flavian Inscription near the Temple Mount of Jerusalem'. ‘Atiqot 44:243–247.

Weksler-Bdolah S. and Sznaton N. 2014. 'Jerusalem, Silwan', Hadashot Arkheologiyot Excavations and Surveys in Israel 124

http://www.hadashot-esi.org.il/report_detail_eng.aspx?id=10572&mag_id=121

Jerusalem – Nicopolis – Joppa

Fischer M., Isaac B. and Roll I. 1996., Roman Roads in Judea II – The Jaffa Jerusalem Roads, BAR International Series 628.

Jerusalem – Beth Horon ascent

Fischer M., Isaac B. and Roll I. 1996., Roman Roads in Judea II – The Jaffa Jerusalem Roads, BAR International Series 628.

Beth Horon ascent - Nicopolis

Fischer M., Isaac B. and Roll I. 1996., Roman Roads in Judea II – The Jaffa Jerusalem Roads, BAR International Series 628.

Hizmi H. 1989-1990. 'Milestones on the Emmaus- Bet Horon road', Excavations and Surveys in Israel 9: 173-174.

Jerusalem - Jericho

Beauvery R. 1957. 'La route romaine de Jerusalem a Jerico', Revue Biblique 64: 72-101.

Roll I. 2002. 'Crossing the Rift Valley: the connecting arteries between the road networks of Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia', in: P. Freeman, J. Bennett, Z. T. Fiema and B. Hoffmann (eds.) Limes XVIII – Proceedings of the XVIIIth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies held in Amman, Jordan (September 2000) British Archaeological Reports International Series 1084,Oxford: 217.

Wilkinson J. 1975. The way from Jerusalem to Jericho. The Biblical Archaeologist 38: 10-24.

Jericho

Hawari M. 2010. 'Archaeological Landscape Survey at Khirbat al-Mafjar 2009 and 2010", CBRL: 25, 31.

Jerusalem – Eleutheropolis

Alt A. 1929. 'Romerstrasse Jerusalem-Eleutheropolis', PJB: 9-12.

Kallai Z. 1965. Remains of the Roman Road along the Mevo-Beitar Highway. IEJ 15: 195-203.

Dagan Y. 2011. The Ramat Bet Shemesh Regional Project: Landscapes of Settlement:From the Paleolithic to the Ottoman Periods IAA Reports 47: 271-272

Eleutheropolis - Nicopolis

Dagan Y. 2011. The Ramat Bet Shemesh Regional Project: Landscapes of Settlement:From the Paleolithic to the Ottoman Periods IAA Reports 47: 273.

Jamania

Y. H. Landau 'Unpublished inscriptions from Israel', Acta of the Fifth International Congress of Greek and Latin Epigraphy, Cambridge 1971: 389.

Ashqelon

Roll I. 'A Roman Milestone from the "Third Mile Estate", Ashqelon', ATIQOT 74,  2013: 223- 228

Scorpion ascent (milestone)

Roll I. 1989. 'A Latin Imperial Inscription from the Time of Diocletian Found at Yotvata’, IEJ 39: 260, n. 101

Oboda – Ramon crater ('Incense Route')

Ben David C. 2012. Nabataean or late Roman ? reconsidering the date of the built sections and milestones along the Petra-Gaza road. In: L. Nehme and L. Wadeson (eds.) The Nabataeans in Focus: Current Archaeological Research At Petra Oxford: 17-26.

Meshel Z. and Tsafrir Y. 1974. 'The Nabataean Road from ‘Avdat to Sha’ar-Ramon'. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 106: 103-118.

Meshel, Z. and Tsafrir, Y. 1975. The Nabataean road from ‘Avdat to Sha’ar-Ramon. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 107, 3-21.

Yahel (Wadi Arabah)

Roll, I and Avner, U. 2008. Tetrarchic Milestones found near Yahel in the Southern Aravah. Zeitschrift fur Papyrologie und Epigraphik 165, 267-286.  

 

Bibliography for Roman Roads and Milestones in the Roman province of Arabia (Including parts of modern Jordan that belonged to Judaea/Palaestina)

General

Brunnow, R. E., and von Domaszewski, A. 1905. Die Provincia Arabia, Vol. II. Strassburg.

Kennedy, D.L. 2004. The Roman Army in Jordan. 2nd revised edition. London.

Roll I. 1999. 'The Roads in Roman-Byzantine Palestine and Arabia', in: M. Piccrillo and E. Alliata (eds.) The Madaba Map Centenary 1897-1997, Jerusalem: 109-113.

Thomsen  P. 1917.  'Die romischen Meilensteine der Provinzen Syria, Arabia, und Palastina'. Zeitchrift des Deutschen Palastina-Vereins 40: 1-103.

 

Tabula Peutingeriana

Finkelstein I. 1979. 'The Holy Land in the Tabula Peutingeriana: A Historical-Geographical Approach', Palestine Exploration Quarterly 111: 27-34, pls II-III.

Talbert R.J.A. 2010. Rome's World: The Peutinger Map Reconsidered, Cambridge.

Tappy R.E. 2012. 'The Tabula Peutingeriana, Its Roadmap to Borderland Settlements in Iudaea-Palestina, With Special reference to Tel Zayit in the Late Roman period', Near Eastern Archaeology 75/1: 36-55.

E. Weber 1999. 'The Tabula Peutingeriana and the Madaba Map;, in: M. Piccrillo and E. Alliata (eds.) The Madaba Map Centenary 1897-1997, Jerusalem: 41-46.

 

According to roads or sites (from north to south)

The Basalt Desert

Kennedy D.L. 1997 'Roman roads and routes in north-east Jordan', Levant 29:  77-78, 88-91.

Kennedy, D.L. 2004. The Roman Army in Jordan. 2nd revised edition. London: 69-71.

 

Via Nova Triana - North Section

Aliquot J and Al-Husan A.Q. 2015 'East of the Via Nova in Roman Arabia: two tetrachic milestones from Northern Jordan', SYRIA 92 :361-364.
Bauzou, T.  1986. "Deux milliaires inédits de Vaballath en Jordaine du Norde," The Defence of the Roman and Byzantine East. Part I. Proceedings of a colloquium held at the University of Sheffield in April 1986 ed. P. Freeman and D. Kennedy (BAR International Series 297(i) [British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, Monograph No. 8] 1-8.

Buzou,  T. Syria 68 (1991) 446-448 ; SEG 41:1592

Bauzou T. 1998 'Le secteur nord de la via nova en Arabie de Bostra a Phladelphie', in: J-B. Humbert and A. Desreumaux Khirbet es-Samra, Jordanie I, Paris: 101-255.

Kennedy D. 1986 'Latin Inscriptions from Jordan, 1985' ZPE 65: 231-236

Kennedy D.L. 1995 'The Via Nova Triana in Northern Jordan: a cultural resource under threat', ADAJ 39: 221-228.

Kennedy D.L. 1997 'Roman roads and routes in north-east Jordan', Levant 29: 71-93

Kennedy D. 2000 'Relocating the past: Missing inscriptions from Qasr el_hallabat and the air Photographs if Sir Aurel Stein for TransJordan', PEQ 132: 28-36.

Kennedy, D.L. 2004. The Roman Army in Jordan. 2nd revised edition. London: 93-95.

Kennedy D.L and al-Husan A.G. 1996  'New milestones from northern Jordan', ZPE 113: 257-262.

Parker S.T. 1986  'A Tetrachic milestone from Arabia', ZPE 62: 256-258

 

Gadara

Buhrig C.  2008 Das spatkaiserzeitliche Bogenmonument extra muros in Gadara, Rahden: 156-168, 465-467.

Riedel N. 1999 "Eine neu entdeckte Meilensteingruppe in Nordwestjordanien' ZDPV 115: 45-47.

 

Gadara – Adraa

Mittmann S. 1970 Beitrage zur Siedlungs und Territorialgeschichte des Nordlichen Ostjordanlandes, Wiesbaden: 131-138.

 

Gadara – Pella

Mittmann S. 1970 Beitrage zur Siedlungs und Territorialgeschichte des Nordlichen Ostjordanlandes, Wiesbaden: 138-150.

 

Pella

Hennessy B. et al., ADAJ 27 (1983) 349; SEG 33:1294

McNicoll A. W. et al. 1992  Pella in Jordan 2:  Sydney: 122-124

 

Gerasa:

Agusta-Boularot S., Mujjali A. and.Seigne J. 1998, 'un nouvaeu gouvereneur d'Arbie sur un milliare inedit de la voie Gerasa/Adraa', MEFRA 110 1: 243-260.

Agusta-Boularot S., Mujjali A. and.Seigne J. 1998 'Milliares anciens et nouveaux de  Gerasa', MEFRA 110 1: 261-295.

Atallah N. 2003 'A new Roman milestone found at Istafina un the Ajlun area, Jordan' Levant 35: 153-158. AE 2003, 1821 ,  AE 2005: 1584-1587.

Kutsch E. 1965 ' Ein stuk eines Romischen meilesteines in Angara', ZPDV 81:132-137.

Mittmann S. 1970 Beitrage zur Siedlungs und Territorialgeschichte des Nordlichen Ostjordanlandes, Wiesbaden: 152-159. (Gerasa – Pella)

Mittmann S. 1966 'The Roman road from Gerasa to Adraa', ADAJ, 11: 65-87.

Seigne J.,.Agusta-Boularot S. and.Mujjali A.M. 2008 'Milliares anciens et nouvaeux de Gerasa', ZPE 164: 271-276.

Welles C. B. 1938. ‘The Inscriptions’, in C.H. Kraeling, Gerasa, City of the Decapolis, New Haven: 462-466, nos. 252-271.

 

Amman-Gerasa road

Agusta-Boularot S. and Seigne J. 2002. 'A propos des legations d'Arabie de P. Aelius Seuerianus Maximus et de Q. Scribonius Tenax', ZPE 139: 279-282.

Mittmann S. 1970 Beitrage zur Siedlungs und Territorialgeschichte des Nordlichen Ostjordanlandes, Wiesbaden: 159-162.

Rasson-Seigne A.M. and Seigne J. 1995. 'Notes Preliminaires Letude de la voie Romaine Gerasa/Philadelphia', ADAJ 39: 193-210.  SEG 41:1592;  AE 2002: 1569

Seigne J., Agusta-Boularot S.,  and Rasson-Seigne A. M. 1997.  'A new mile station from the Roman Road Gerasa/Philadelphia'   ADAJ 41 :267-275; SEG 47:2066

Seigne J., Agusta-Boularot S.,  and Rasson-Seigne A. M. 1997.  'Notes on Roman milestones from khirbat Baradan preliminary report', ADAJ 41: 455-458.

Seigne J. 1997. Syria 74 121-138; SEG 47:2067

 

Gadora

M. O’Hea, 2002 ‘Note on a Roman Milestone from Gadora (al-Salt) in the Jordan Valley’, LEVANT 34: 235-238.  

 

Esbus

Ibach R. D. 1983 'Two Roads lead to Esbus' in: D. Merling and L.T. Geraty (eds) Hesban after 25 years, Michigan: 66-79.

Piccirillo M. 1966. 'La strada Roman Esbus-Livias', LA 46: 285-300 pls. 7-14

Piccirillo M., 1998. ‘The Roman Esbus-Livia Road’, in: M. Piccirillo and E. Alliata, Mount Nebo – New Archaeological Excavations 1967-1997, Jerusalem , pp. 133-149.

 

Via Nova Triana - Central  and Southern section

Abudanah F. et.al. 2016 'The Via Nova Triana Between Petra and Ayn Al-Qana in Arabia Petraea', Oxford Journal of Archaeology 35(4): 389-412.
Boling, R. G. 1989. Site Survey in the el-Umeiri Region. In L. T. Geraty, L. G. Herr, Ø. S. LaBianca, & R. W. Younker (Eds.), Madaba Plains Project 1: The 1984 Season at Tell el-Umeiri and Vicinity and Subsequent Studies Berrien Springs, Michigan: Andrews University/Institute of Archaeology: 130 and figs 8.36-40

Borstad, K. A. 2008. History from Geography: The Initial Route of the Via Nova Traiana in Jordan. Levant 40.1, 55-70.

Borstad K.A. and J. Haroun  2010 'A new Roman road site on al-Karak Plateau' ADAJ 54: 483-491.

Graf, D. F. 1995 The Via Nova Traiana in Arabia Petraea. in J. H. Humphrey ed. The Roman and Byzantine Near East Vol.1. Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series 14, 141-167. Ann Arbor.

Kennedy, D.L. 2004. The Roman Army in Jordan. 2nd revised edition. London: 122-123, 144-145, 165, 175, 187-188, 192 .

MacDonald, B. 1996. The Route of the Via Nova Traiana Immediately South of Wadi al Hasa. Palestine Exploration Quarterly 128, 12-15.

 

Via Militaris   (Lejun, Jurf Darwish and Udruh, milestones without inscriptions)

Abudanah, F. A.2006. Settlement Patterns and Military Organization in the Region of Udruh (southern Jordan) in the Roman and Byzantine Periods. Unpublished PhD thesis, Newcastle upon Tyne University: 101 .

Ben-Gad Hacohen, D. 2000a.  Waheb in Supah’ and ‘The Settled Country of Ar: Comments on the Route of the Israelites in Moab. Cathedra 95, 7-24 (Hebrew).

Ben-Gad Hacohen, D. 2000b. Via Limes Arabicus. Cathedra 98, 159 (Hebrew).

Ben David C. forthcoming "Milestones near Roman Army Installations in desert areas of the Provinces of Palaestina and Arabia", Proceedings of the XXIst International Limes  (Roman Frontiers) Congress 2009.

Findlater, G. 2002. Limes Arabicus, via militaris and resource control in southern Jordan. In. P. Freeman, J. Bennett, Z. T. Fiema and B. Hofmann eds. Limes XVIII. The Proceedings of the XVIIIth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies held in Amman, Jordan  (September 2000). British Archaeological Reports International Series 1084, 137-152. Oxford.

Graf, D. F. 1997. The Via Militaris in Arabia. Dumbarton Oak Papers 51, 271-281.

Kennedy, D.L. 2004. The Roman Army in Jordan. 2nd revised edition. London: 122-123, 141, 168.

Killick, A. 1987. Udruh and the Trade Route through Sothern Jordan, Studies in the History and Archeology of Jordan 3, 173-179.

Lewin, A. 2001. Kastron Mefaa, the equites promoti indigenae and the creation of a late Roman frontier. Liber Annuus 51, 293-304.

McDonald,  B., Herr, L. G., Neeley, M. P., Gagos, T., Moumani, K. and Rockman, M. 2004. The Tafila-Busayra Archaeological Survey 1999-2001, West-Central Jordan. Boston, American Schools of Oriental research: 385

Parker, S. T.  2006. The Roman Frontier in Central Jordan, Final Report on the Limes Arabicus Project, 1980-1989. Washington D.C., Dumbarton Oaks: 534.

 

Dead Sea  Region

Ben David, C. 2002. The Zoar ascent – a newly discovered Roman road connecting Zoar-Safi and the Moabite plateau. in P. Freeman, J. Bennett, Z. T. Fiema and B. Hoffmann (eds.) Limes XVIII – Proceedings of the XVIIIth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies held in Amman, Jordan (September 2000) British Archaeological Reports International Series 1084,103-112.Oxford.

Kyle, M.G., 1928, Explorations at Sodom, New York.

Mittmann, S.1982. The Ascent of Luhit. Studies in the History and Archeology of Jordan 1, 175-180.   

 

Wadi Araba

Bir Mahdkur

Smith, A. M. II 2005. Bir Madhkur Project: A Preliminary Report on Recent Fieldwork. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 340, 65-66

Smith, A. M. II 2010  Wadi Araba in Classical and Late Antiquity : An Historical Geography. BAR International Series 2173: 78, 79 fig 81.

 

A milestone quarry  near Qa'a es-Sa‘idiyeen

Smith II, A. M., Stevens, M., and Niemi, T. M. 1997. The Southeast Araba Archaeological Survey: A Preliminary Report’, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 305, 62, site 134.

Ben David, C. 2007.   The Paved Road from Petra to the Arabah – Commercial Nabataean or Military Roman? in A. S. Lewin and P. Pellegrini (eds.) The Late Roman Army in the Near East from Diocletian to the Arab Conquest Proceedings of a colloquium held at Potenza, Acerenza and Matera, Italy (May 2005) British Archaeological Reports  International Series S1717,101-110. Oxford.